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In TECNO DIAR S.A. we work in the design of new datacenters and technological works based on certain market standards and the experience gained in the projects we have participated.

ANSI/EIA/TIA-942

The American Sarbanes-Oxley Act, known as SOX, was enacted to generate transparency on financial activity and statements of public companies and improve the confidence of investors with regards to the veracity of corporate financial reporting.

The act covers not only fraud but also infrastructural requirements to dispose of the corporate financial information in a secure and efficient manner.
This requirement has caused major repercussions within the American public companies, as SOX qualify them in accordance with the compliance with its specific mandates.

Although market standards and recommendations of different global associations existed, SOX demands and a higher awareness on data protection caused that all those recommendations for a Data Center infrastructure gained special prominence.

In response to these new requirements, the Telecommunication Industry Association (TIA) developed a standard for Data Centers design: TIA-942.

The intention of TIA-942 is unifying criteria for the design of telecommunication areas and specifies the guidelines to be followed on the infrastructure subsystems to classify them based on the different levels of availability, establishing the required strategies by the Uptime Institute for the availability of data.

The main contributions for the development of the TIA-942 is on the same TIA on TIA-568, the recommendations of ASHRAE TC9.9 that defines parameters for the management of the infrastructure of critical mission concerning to Air Conditioning and that stated by the Building Industry Consulting Service International (BICSI) since 1974. The latter has updated its recommendations from 2005 when the TIA-942 was published with the objective of complementing the strategies and recommendations of the appendices of the TIA-942 for better practices of implementation of Data Centers.

UPTIME INSTITUTE

The uptime institute defines four levels or TIERs representing the evolution of the last 40 years of Data Centers infrastructure, TIER I appeared mainly in the 60s, while TIER II in the 70s, TIER III in late 80s and early 90s and TIER IV in 1994.

In 1994, United Parcel Service's (UPS) was the first company that had a TIER IV data center, developed together with IBM and other hardware makers which had double power source in the computer equipment. The four levels of TIERs that the standard sets out, represents four levels of availability, the higher the TIER the greater the availability and also higher structural spending.

The main characteristics of the four TIERs are presented as follows:

Tier I – Basic site infrastructure for DATA CENTER
Availability: 99.67% / 28,8 hours
Spending: $ 2,400.- / m2 – $ 10,000.- / kW
Functional requirements: the site has non-redundant capacity components and non-redundant distribution path serving the computer equipment.
Results: a failure of any capacity component might cause a data center disruption. Maintenance work will require most or all of the site infrastructure systems to be shut down affecting systems and end users.
Operational impact: the site is susceptible to disruption from both planned and unplanned activities, operation errors or spontaneous failures might cause a data center disruption.

Tier II – Redundant site infrastructure capacity components
Availability: 99.75% / 22 hours
Spending: $ 2,400.- / m2 – $ 11,000.- / kW
Functional requirements: it has redundant capacity components and a single (non-redundant) distribution path serving the computer equipment.
Results: redundant capacity components can be removed from service for maintenance works without causing any of the computer equipment to be shut down. An unplanned outrage or failure of the distribution system may impact the computer equipment.
Operational Impact: the site is susceptible to disruption from both planned and unplanned activities, operation errors or spontaneous failures might cause a data center disruption.

Tier III – Concurrently maintainable site infrastructure
Availability: 99.98% / 1,6 hours
Spending: $ 2,400.- / m2 – $ 20,000.- / kW
Functional requirements: it has redundant capacity components and independent distribution paths serving the computer equipment. Typically only one distribution path serves the computer equipment at any time and the remaining path is used as a contingency plan.
Results: redundant capacity components can be removed from service for maintenance activities without causing any disruption. An unplanned outrage or failure of the distribution system may impact the computer equipment. Each and every capacity component in the distribution paths can be removed from service without impacting any of the computer equipment.
Operational Impact: planned site infrastructure maintenance can be performed by using the redundant capacity components and distribution paths to safely work on the remaining equipment.

Tier IV – Fault-tolerant site infrastructure
Availability: 99.99% / 0,8 hours
Spending: $ 2,400.- / m2 – $ 22,000.- / kW
Functional requirements: it has multiple, independent physically isolated systems with redundant capacity components and multiple, independent, diverse, active distribution paths simultaneously serving the computer equipment. Results: a single failure of any capacity system, capacity component or distribution element will not impact the computer equipment. Each and every system or component can be removed from service for planned or unplanned activities without impacting any of the computer equipment.
Operational impact: the site is not susceptible to disruption from any planned or unplanned activities or operation errors.
The cost estimation was done by the Uptime institute in 2005, having a calculated dispersion of 30%. The calculation was done for the USA and if used for other countries a correction factor shall be applied.
The costs representation is given by two variables: the cost per square meter which is the same for the four TIERs and the cost per every 1,000 watts of consumption which varies depending on the TIER.

ISO - 27001

The only standard introduced as an universal application standard in the strategies development, best practices and infrastructure development for Data Centers is the ISO 27001 being its full name ISO/IEC 27001:2005: Information Technology - Security Techniques – Information Security Management Systems – Requirements and is formed by ten sections, dealing the first part with controls and the second one with the certification of the Information Security Management System or ISMS.

The ISO 27001 has its predecessor in ISO 17799:2005 Code of Practice for Information Security Management and which, in turn, has its predecessor in the BS 7799.

The implementation of these security standards allows us to generate the best practices for the definition of controls, managing solutions in a proactive way to avoid interruptions in the business activities and processes, ensuring a proper protection for the information systems against internal and external threats.

In the text of ISO 27001, in the standard objectives, there is a sentence that opens a door that leads to reflection: "the information security is not a project but a process with a beginning and no end, as it is an activity of continuous improvement that requires the commitment and support of all the organization to succeed"

STANDARDS AND QUALITY LEVELS

In order to follow the best practices and standards in the market for Data Centers design, the ANSI/EIA/TIA-942 and the Uptime Institute provide design guidelines related to international standards. We also have to adjust to the local standard regulations, such as:

  • ISO:International Standards Organization

  • ANSI: American National Standards Institute.

  • FM: Factory Mutual Research Corporation.

  • ISA: Instrument Society of America.

  • NEC: National Electrical Code.

  • NFPA: National Fire Protection Association.

  • IEEE: Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers.

  • IEC: International Electromechanical Commission.

  • OSHA: Occupational Safety and Health Administration.

  • UL: Underwriter's Laboratories.

  • NOSA: National Occupation Safety Association

 

  • ASTM: American Society for Testing & Materials.

  • ASME: American Society of Mechanical Engineers.

  • IRAM: Instituto Argentino de Normalización y Certificación

  • AEA: Asociación Electrotécnica Argentina

  • COPIME: Consejo Profesional de Ingeniería Mecánica y Electricista

  • ANSI/EIA/TIA-568B: Comercial Building Telecommunications Wiring Standard

  • ANSI/EIA/TIA-569-A: Commercial building standard for Telecomunications Pathways and Spaces

  • ANSI/EIA/TIA-606-A: Administration Standard for Commercial Telecommunications Infrastructure

 

Céspedes 3249 of 103 (C1426DVG)- Capital Federal - Buenos Aires - Argentina Tel (+54-11) 4555-6248 - Mail: contacto@tecnodiar.com
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